May 27, 2011

know guitars players

Well, depend from personal view.... impossible know all of them....but some of them are:

  1. Jimi Hendrix* (Jimi Hendrix Experence, Band of Gypsys, session work)
  2. Jeff Beck (The Yardbirds, Jeff Beck Group, session work, solo)
  3. Eddie Van Halen (Van Halen)
  4. Eric Clapton (The Yardbirds, Cream, Blind Faith, Derek & The Dominos, session work, solo)
  5. Jimmy Page (The Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin, The Firm, session work)
  6. Ritchie Blackmore (Deep Purple, Rainbow, Blackmore's Night)
  7. Tony Iommi (Black Sabbath, solo)
  8. Chuck Berry (solo)
  9. Scotty Moore (Elvis Presley)
10. Duane Allman* (Allman Brothers Band, Derek & The Dominos, session work)
11. Robert Fripp (King Crimson, session work, solo)
12. Steve Howe (Yes, Asia, the Syndicats, solo)
13. Brian May (Queen, solo)
14. David Gilmour (Pink Floyd, solo)
15. Carlos Santana (Santana, solo)
16. Pete Townshend (The Who, solo)
17. Steve Cropper (Booker T & the MG's, Mar-Keys, Blues Brothers Band, sesion work)
18. Steve Vai (Frank Zappa, Alcatrazz, David Lee Roth, Whitesnake, solo)
19. Yngwie Malmsteen (Steeler, Alcatrazz, solo)
20. Steve Morse (Dixie Dregs, Deep Purple, solo)
21. Eric Johnson (The Electromagnets, solo)
22. Joe Satriani (solo, Chickenfoot)
23. Danny Gatton* (solo, session work, Redneck Jazz Explosion)
24. Roy Buchanan* (solo, session work)
25. Steve Hackett (Genesis, solo)
26. Phil Keaggy (Glass Harp, solo)
27. Jan Akkerman (Focus, solo)
28. Alex Lifeson (Rush)
29. Mark Knopfler (Dire Straits, solo)
30. Keith Richards (The Rolling Stones, solo)
31. George Harrison* (The Beatles, solo)
32. Randy Rhoads* (Quiet Riot, Ozzy Osbourne)
33. Uli Jon Roth (Scorpions, solo)
34. Michael Schenker (Scorpions, UFO, MSG)
35. Gary Moore (Thin Lizzy, Colosseum II, solo)
36, 37, & 38. Joe Messina/Robert White*/Eddie Willis (The Funk Brothers)
39. James Burton (Ricky Nelson, Elvis Presley, session work)
40. Link Wray* (solo)
41. Jimmy Nolen* (The J.B.'s, Johnny Otis Band, Maceo & All the King's Men)
42. Lonnie Mack (solo, session work)
43. Dick Dale (solo)
44. Jerry Garcia* (Grateful Dead, Jerry Garcia Band, solo, session work)
45. Marty Friedman (Cacophony, Megadeth, solo)
46. Cliff Gallup* (Gene Vincent's Blue Caps)
47. Dickey Betts (Allman Brothers Band, Dickey Betts Band)
48. Shawn Lane* (Black Oak Arkansas, The Willys, HLS, solo)
49. Hank Marvin (The Shadows)
50. Bo Diddley* (solo)
51. Curtis Mayfield* (Impressions, solo)
52. Frank Zappa* (Mothers Of Invention, solo)
53 & 54. Thurston Moore / Lee Ranaldo (Sonic Youth)
55. Terry Kath* (Chicago)
56. Eddie Hazel* (Funkadelic, solo)
57. Rory Gallagher* (solo)
58. Tommy Bolin* (Deep Purple, session work, solo)
59. Slash (Guns N' Roses, Slash's Snakepit, Velvet Revolver, session work)
60. Warren Haynes (Allman Brothers Band, Gov't Mule)
61. Andy Summers (The Police, session work, solo)
62. Mick Ronson* (The Spiders From Mars, session work, solo)
63 & 64. Glenn Tipton/K.K. Downing (Judas Priest)
65. Steve Lukather (Toto, session work)
66. Neal Schon (Santana, Journey)
67. John Petrucci (Dream Theater, Liquid Tension Experiment, solo)
68 & 69. Dave Murray/Adrian Smith (Iron Maiden)
70 & 71. James Hetfield/Kirk Hammett (Metallica)
72. Johnny Marr (The Smiths)
73. The Edge (U2)
74. Alvin Lee (Ten Years After)
75. Leslie West (Mountain)
76. Billy Gibbons (ZZ Top)
77. Paul Gilbert (Mr. Big, Racer X, solo)
78. Buckethead (solo, Praxis, Guns N' Roses)
79. Vinnie Moore (UFO, Alice Cooper, solo)
80. Tony MacAlpine (M.A.R.S., Planet X, Ring Of Fire, CAB, solo)
81 & 82. Angus Young/Malcolm Young (AC/DC)
83. Ray Gomez (session work, solo, Los Pop Tops, Stanley Clarke)
84. Michael Landau (session work, Raging Honkies, Michael Landau Group)
85. Carl Verheyen (session work, Supertramp, Carl Verheyen Band)
86. Adrian Belew (King Crimson, solo)
87. Martin Barre (Jethro Tull)
88. Mick Taylor (Rolling Stones, John Mayall's Bluesbreakers, solo)
89 & 90. Dave Davies/Ray Davies (The Kinks)
91. Neil Young (Buffalo Springfield, CSNY, solo)
92 & 93. Scott Gorham/Brian Robertson (Thin Lizzy)
94. Dimebag Darrell* (Pantera)
95. Guthrie Govan (Asia, Erotic Cakes, The Fellowship, solo)
96. Derek Trucks (The Allman Brothers Band, Frogwings, Derek Trucks Band)
97. Big Jim Sullivan (session work)
98. Mickey Baker (session work, Mickey & Sylvia)
99. Robin Trower (Procol Harum, solo)
100. Jorma Kaukonen (Jefferson Airplane, Hot Tuna)
101. Johnny Ramone* (The Ramones)
102. Frank Marino (Mahogany Rush)
103. Duane Eddy (solo)
104. Ronnie Montrose (Montrose)
105. Andrew Latimer (Camel)
106. Tom Morello (Rage Against the Machine, Audioslave)
107. Carl Perkins (solo)
108 & 109. Allen Collins*/Gary Rossington (Lynyrd Skynyrd)
110. Paul Kossoff* (Free)
111. John Cipollina* (Quicksilver Messenger Service)
112. Andy Timmons (Danger Danger, solo)
113. Joe Walsh (The Eagles, The James Gang, solo)
114. Ted Nugent (The Amboy Dukes, Damn Yankees, solo)
115. John Fogerty (Creedence Clearwater Revival, solo)
116. Chuck Schuldiner* (Death)
117. Bill Nelson (Be Bop Deluxe, solo)
118. Richie Kotzen (Poison, Mr. Big, solo)
119. Alex Skolnick (Testament, Savatage, solo)
120. Rick Derringer (McCoys, Edgar Winter, solo, session work)
121. Kerry Livgren (Kansas)
122. George Lynch (Dokken, Lynch Mob)
123. John Sykes (Whitesnake, Thin Lizzy)
124 & 125. Tom Verlaine/Richard Lloyd (Television)
126. Steve Hillage (Gong, solo)
127. Randy Bachman (The Guess Who, Bachman-Turner Overdrive)
128. Steve Rothery (Marillion)
129. Jason Becker (Cacophony, David Lee Roth)
130. Buddy Holly* (solo)
131. Jukka Tolonen (Tasavallan Presidentti, solo)
132. "Fast" Eddie Clarke (Motörhead, Fastway)
133. Stephen Stills (Buffalo Springfield, CSN, solo)
134 & 135. Joe Perry/Brad Whitford (Aerosmith)
136. Ron Thal (Bumblefoot, Guns N' Roses, solo)
137. Michael Romeo (Symphony X)
138. Mattias IA Eklundh (Freak Kitchen, solo)
139. Steve Stevens (Billy Idol, Bozzio Levin Stevens, session work, solo)
140. Jake E. Lee (Ozzy Osbourne, Badlands)
141. Domenic Troiano* (The Guess Who, The James Gang)
142. Peter Frampton (Humble Pie, solo)
143. Miller Anderson (Savoy Brown, Miller Anderson Band, Keef Hartley Band)
144. Nuno Bettencourt (Extreme)
145. Jerry Cantrell (Alice In Chains)
146. Mike McCready (Pearl Jam)
147. John Frusciante (Red Hot Chili Peppers)
148. Nile Rodgers (Chic)
149. John Jorgenson (session work, Hellecasters)
150. Dave Mustaine (Megadeth)
151. Kai Hansen (Helloween, Gamma Ray)
152. Vivian Campbell (Dio, Whitesnake, Def Leppard)
153. Trey Anastasio (Phish)
154. Brett Garsed (John Farnham, Nelson, solo)
155. Phil Manzanera (Roxy Music)
156. Bernard Butler (Suede, The Tears, solo)
157. John Squire (Stone Roses)
158. Rik Emmett (Triumph, solo)
159. Jeff "Skunk" Baxter (Steely Dan, Doobie Brothers)
160. Ollie Halsall* (Patto, Tempest, Boxer, Rutles, Kevin Ayers)
161. Greg Howe (solo, session work)
162. D. Boon (Minutemen)
163. Greg Ginn (Black Flag)
164. Jerry Miller (Moby Grape)
165. Reggie Young (session work, Bill Black Combo)
166. Donald "Buck Dharma" Roeser (Blue Öyster Cult)
167. Lowman Pauling (The 5 Royales)
168. Travis Wammack (session work, solo)
169. Robbie Krieger (The Doors)
170. Michael Lee Firkins (solo)
171. Larry Lalonde (Primus, Possessed)
172. Ty Tabor (King's X, Platypus, solo)
173. Kevin Shields (My Bloody Valentine)
174. Billy Zoom (X)
175. Lindsey Buckingham (Fleetwood Mac)
176. Matt Bellamy (Muse)
177. Ace Frehley (Kiss)
178. Syd Barrett* (Pink Floyd, solo)
179, 180 & 181. Jonny Greenwood/Ed O'Brien/Thom Yorke (Radiohead)
182 & 183. Ric Ocasek/Elliot Easton (The Cars)
184 & 185. Jeff Hanneman/Kerry King (Slayer)
186. Prince (solo)
187. Chris Poland (Megadeth, OHM)
188. Bill Steer (Napalm Death, Carcass)
189. Zakk Wylde (Ozzy Osbourne, Black Label Society)
190. Robert Quine (Lou Reed, John Zorn, Tom Waits, Brian Eno, session work)
191. James Murphy (Death, Obituary)
192. Chris Rea (solo)
193 & 194. David Allan "Ted" Turner/Andy Powell (Wishbone Ash)
195. T. J. Helmerich (sessions, solo)
196. Dr Know (Bad Brains)
197. Roger McGuinn (The Byrds)
198. Robbie Robertson (The Band)
199. Ron Asheton* (The Stooges)
200 & 201. Wayne Kramer/Fred "Sonic" Smith* (MC5)
202. Johnny Thunders* (The New York Dolls, The Heartbreakers)
203. Marc Bolan* (T-Rex)
204 & 205. Rudolph Schenker/Matthias Jabs (Scorpions)
206. Tom Johnston (The Doobie Brothers)
207. Kim Simmonds (Savoy Brown)
208. Nils Lofgren (Bruce Springsteen, Neil Young, solo)
209. Wild Jimmy Spruill (session work)
210. Franny Beecher (Bill Haley & His Comets)
211. Danny Cedrone* (Bill Haley & His Comets)
212. Paul Burlison* (Johnny Burnette & The Rock & Roll Trio)
213 & 214. Bob Bogle/Don Wilson (Ventures)
215. Kim Mitchell (Max Webster, solo)
216. East Bay Ray (Dead Kennedys)
217. Mick Jones (The Clash)
218. Brian Jones* (The Rolling Stones)
219. Danny Kortchmar (session work, the City)
220. Devin Townsend (Strapping Young Lad, Devin Townsend Band, Devin Townsend Project)
221. Kee Marcello (Europe)
222 & 223. Chris DeGarmo/Michael Wilton (Queensryche)
224. Jimmy Herring (Widespread Panic, Allman Brothers Band, Phil Lesh & Friends)
225. Ernie Isley (Isley Brothers)
226. Vernon Reid (Living Color)
227. Dave Mason (Traffic, Fleetwood Mac, session work)
228. Kurt Cobain* (Nirvana)
229. Dave Meniketti (Y&T)
230. Richie Sambora (Bon Jovi, solo)
231. Randy California* (Spirit)
232. Glen Buxton (Alice Cooper)
233. Steve Miller (Steve Miller Band)
234 & 235. Brad Gillis/Jeff Watson (Night Ranger)
236. Andy LaRocque (King Diamond, Death)
237. Criss Oliva* (Savatage)
238. J. Mascis (Dinosaur Jr.)
239. Trevor Rabin (Yes)
240 & 241. Francis Rossi/Rick Parfitt (Status Quo)
242 & 243. Scott Ian & Dan Spitz (Anthrax)
244. Jonsi Birgisson (Sigur Ros)
245. Gary Green (Gentle Giant)
246. Don Felder (The Eagles)
247. Mike Campbell (The Heartbreakers, Dirty Knobs)
248. Rick Nielsen (Cheap Trick)
249. Tommy Shaw (Styx, Damn Yankess, solo)
250. Adam Jones (Tool)

Rolling Stone - MAGAZINE

In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine published a list called The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. This list included 100 guitarists which the magazine considered the best with a brief introduction for each of them. The first in this list is the American guitarist Jimi Hendrix introduced by Pete Townshend, guitarist for The Who, who was, in his turn, ranked at #50 of the list. The list is heavily in favor of electric US blues rock guitarists. The Top Ten of The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Rolling Stone are:[4]
# Guitarist Nationality
01 Jimi Hendrix  United States
02 Duane Allman  United States
03 B.B. King  United States
04 Eric Clapton  United Kingdom
05 Robert Johnson  United States
06 Chuck Berry  United States
07 Stevie Ray Vaughan  United States
08 Ry Cooder  United States
09 Jimmy Page  United Kingdom
10 Keith Richards  United Kingdom
In informing the list to readers, Paul MacInnes from British newspaper The Guardian expressed: "Surprisingly enough for an American magazine, the top 10 is fair jam-packed with Yanks", although he also noted three exceptions in the top 10.[5] The online magazine Blogcritics criticized the list for introducing some undeserving guitarists while forgetting some artists perceived being perhaps more worthy, such as Phil Keaggy or John Petrucci.[6]
The list has also been criticized for some questionable placements, such as Brian May (#39) Pete Townshend (#50), Randy Rhoads (#85), Angus Young (#96), David Gilmour (#82) and Eddie Van Halen (#70).
The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time is mentioned in many biographies about artists who appear in the list.[7][8][9]

May 10, 2011

Power supplies

A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source.

A power supply in guitar world are common use to supply electrical energy for guitar effects, gutar pedals. On the market we can find a lot of different type.....but the most popular are:
Voodoo Lab Pedal Power and Dunlop power brick.

Voodoo Lab Pedal Power 

The Voodoo Lab Pedal Power AC is a pedalboard power supply designed to operate high current and AC powered pedal effects. Finally, a professional solution for powering tube overdrives, modeling pedals, or devices including Boomerang pedals, the Whammy, POD, Rotosphere and many others without wall warts.
The Pedal Power AC provides two 9VAC and two selectable 9VAC or 12VAC outputs. Features include a toroidal transformer and completely isolated outputs to insure noise free operation. It comes complete with cables and detachable AC power cord. And like all Voodoo Lab products, the Pedal Power AC is hand made in the U.S.A. and carries a 5-year warranty.

Dunlop power brick

the Brick supplies predictable voltage at all times, keeping your effects consistent from show to show. Its FCLC (Foldback Current Limiting Circuit) provides ultimate protection against power shorts and overloads. Even at full load, you'll enjoy the quiet and cool operation of a fully regulated power supply. But since battery powered effects rarely exceed 30 milliamps each, you're not likely to use anywhere near the Brick's capacity of 1000 milliamps output! Power: Included ECB006 AC power adapter can use a wide range of international wall power from 100 to 240 volts, at 47 to 63 Hz. Supplied with U.S. plug

Dunlop power brick   VS   Voodoo lab power supplies

Some review about:
There is one massive difference: the outlets of the PPII are individually isolated, while the outlets on the Brick are not isolated. If any of your pedals take a reverse-polarity plug, with non-isolated outlets all of your pedals now have the common mixed up with the live signal line, resulting in the potential for noise or even total failure. So while it is possible to use non-isolated outlets with no problem, the percentage of instances of noise and/or failure is higher than I will tolerate on my board. So I use the PPII. But the Brick is a lot cheaper, which is its only redeeming quality. It's just a daisy-chain in a box, so most budget-minded pedal users buy the 1-Spot or similar daisy chain PS cable, as it does the exact same job as the Brick but takes up much less space on the pedalboard. Again though, the 1-Spots etc. do not have isolated outlets.

If you don't have any pedals that take reverse-polarity plugs, of if the ones you do have don't happen to dump noise into the signal path or cause your other pedals to shut down, then you're a lucky person
both will fulfill your needs perfectly.. but the voodoo lab, like mentioned, sports isolated outputs, etc...

i dropped the extra bucks to upgrade from the brick to the pp2+.. well worth it for me, because of the pedals i was running... 

May 9, 2011


robably the main thing to understand about effects order is that an effect modifies the sound it receives. This means if you plug your guitar into a fuzz box, the fuzz box gives you a fuzzy guitar sound - pretty obvious, huh? If you then plug the fuzz output into a wah pedal input, then the wah works on the fuzz sound, giving you a synth-like wah sound.
If you plug first into the wah, then into the fuzz, it gives a completely different sound. That's because the fuzz is working on a guitar sound that already has a wah effect. You may know that distortion effects like fuzz have more effect on loud sounds than quiet ones (that's why they sound cleaner when you roll off the guitar volume).   And a wah pedal makes different notes and frequencies louder and softer as you rock the pedal, so rocking the pedal also now controls the amount of fuzz as well, giving what most players prefer as a more interesting effect.
There are no rules on effects order. You won't break any pedals by putting them in a 'wrong' order. In fact, experimenting is the best way to learn, and in doing so, you can come up with many unusual and interesting sounds. There is, however, a typical order of effects that I've listed below.
Before we get into the order, though, you might like to consider why, when & how you use effects. My most deep piece of wisdom to pass on is that the subtle use of effects is suitable for long periods of use, while intense effects have most impact when used briefly.
For example, light phasing or chorus can be used for an entire song, adding some texture to backing rhythm. Dramatic effects like strong delay, wah, or even playing techniques such as continuous fast picking without a rest, become tiresome when overused.
I think the most special effects are those that you can only just detect are turned on. In the late 70's, I had many people trying to figure out how I got a such a special overdrive sound for my solos. All I did was to use a faulty (weak-sounding) phaser set to a slow speed before the overdrive, to give just a hint of movement. You can use understated effects easily to craft your own signature sounds.


guitar effect

Effects units are electronic devices that alter how a musical instrument or other audio source sounds. Some effects subtly "color" a sound, while others transform it dramatically. Effects are used during live performances or in the studio, typically with electric guitar, keyboard and bass. While most frequently used with electric or electronic instruments, effects can also be used with acoustic instruments, drums and vocals. Examples of common effects units include wah-wah pedals, fuzzboxes, and reverb units.
Effects are housed in amplifiers, table top units, "stompboxes" and "rackmounts", or they are built into the instruments themselves. A stompbox (or "pedal") is a small metal or plastic box placed on the floor in front of the musician and connected to his or her instrument. The box is typically controlled by one or more foot-pedal on-off switches and contains only one or two effects. A rackmount is mounted on a standard 19-inch equipment rack and usually contains several different types of effects.
Most guitarists have an intuitive sense as to where basic effects should go in their signal chain. If you have two pedals, a distortion unit and a digital delay, you would naturally put the distortion before the delay (the guitar goes into the distortion, the distortion into the delay, and the delay into the amp). But the more pedals you use, the trickier it gets, and some truly bizarre gizmos—like a digital whammy pedal—might put you at a loss to explain just why effects go where they do relative to others in the chain.

Additionally some processors (such as EQs and reverbs) can go in different places in the chain, depending on the desired effect. And in one very famous example, the debate is still raging about whether the wah-wah goes before or after the distortion (Hendrix put his before, though conventional wisdom says the wah should follow).

Now, you might be thinking, "Gee I know in which order the basic pedals should go, but I guess I don't really know why."

Before we discuss which categories of effects go where they do in the chain, take this pop quiz (I hear you groan) to determine your effect-ordering mettle. Order the effects below from 1 to 10, with 1 being the first effect the guitar plugs into, and 10 being the effect whose output goes into the amp. Place letters next to the numbered slots to indicate which effect goes the proper order. No text-messaging among yourselves for hints.
1. __    A. EQ
2. __    B. Distortion
3. __    C. Chorus/Flanger
4. __    D. Noise Gate
5. __    E. Digital Reverb
6. __    F. Volume Pedal
7. __    G. Preamp
8. __    H. Compressor
9. __     I. Delay
10.__   J. Wah-wah Pedal

Here are the answers, showing the "correct" order of the 10 effects above: 1) G, Preamp; 2) H, Compressor; 3) B, Distortion; 4) J, Wah-wah pedal; 5) C, Chorus/Flanger; 6) I, Delay; 7) A, EQ; 8) D, Noise Gate; 9) F, Volume Pedal; 10) E, Digital Reverb.

Don't deduct any points if you had the delay before the chorus/flanger; that one's a toss-up. Also acceptable is to put the EQ just after the compressor. And really, the EQ in any signal chain is sort of a "free space," so it can go almost anywhere.

If you got more than four effects out of order, or if you realized in taking this quiz that you just got lucky with the placement, it may help to break the above effects into categories and then explore why certain categories come before others in a signal chain. Roughly speaking, I name the categories as follows, in the order that the guitar signal encounters them:

  • Signal Conditioners
  • Time-Based Effects
  • Ambient Processors
  • Other Effects

Here's what's included in each main category:

Signal Conditioners. These include all gain-based and EQ-based effects. Conditioners don't set out to change the basic nature of a sound, except to increase the gain, either in the signal's entirety (preamps) or selectively (by frequency band, as in an EQ).

Preamps listen to the signal and boost it as faithfully as possible with as little coloring as possible—unless in the process of preamping the tone is changed naturally (as happens when, say, tube-based preamps are run hot). Usually preamps have EQ and other controls, preamps go first in the chain so they can receive a signal with the highest possible integrity, even if their purpose is to create a distorted sound.

Compressors reduce the dynamic range of a signal by attenuating levels that exceed a certain, defined point (called threshold). Guitarists often use compressors to increase sustain, but that's sort of an "overuse" of the effect—though it sounds great!

The primary design of a compressor is to deliver a consistent, predictable level without significantly altering the signal's tone. But with heavy compression, some high-frequency content is lost, which you can put back in with EQ (either on the compressor itself or with an outboard effect).

Distortion. It may be hard to imagine your Blues Driver (shown in Fig. 1) as a "mere signal conditioner," because its effect is so dramatic. However, technically, its influence is limited to the gain stage of the signal. In other words, it doesn't set out to change the signal, it just pushes its gain past the breaking point of the circuitry's ability to reproduce it faithfully.

EQ, also known as equalizers, can also be though of as gain boosters, except that they apply their boosting to only a portion of the signal, defined by frequency or frequency range.

Graphic EQs are used for broad-band applications, while parametrics can be dialed in to very specific ranges (usually defined by parts of an octave), and even to a single frequency. Except in "severe" cases, like a wah-wah pedal and a phase shifter, EQs don't dramatically change a signal's overall sound, and are often used fore corrective measures (to rectify a frequency-reproducing deficiency in another component).

Wah-Wah pedals are active EQ circuits whose range is varied by means of a foot pedal. They apply a resonant-frequency peak that sweeps through the high-mid region (around 500 Hz—2 kHz), emulating somewhat the sound of a human voice.


A surprising amount of sonic variety comes from effects that alter a signal using time distortion. Time-based effects, by definition, combine the original signal with a time-manipulated version, and that's why these effects work well in an amp's parallel loop or from a mixer's aux send jack.

You always want a portion of the original signal in the equation. Time-based effects take the original signal, sample it (through digital recording), stagger it in time, and combine it somehow with the original. You might not think of the swimmy chorus sound as being related to loop recording a la Brian May, but they're two ends of the same spectrum.

Choruses/Flangers are interchangeable as far as effect-ordering. You probably wouldn't use them both at the same time in orthodox situations. Chorus is the more subtle of the two effects, usually consisting of a delay of 1-50 milliseconds, and is often used in stereo. Flangers, like the one shown in Fig. 3, are more dramatic, whooshy and vintage sounding. Put these after signal conditioners but before the delay and reverb.

Pitch Shifters are sometimes referred to generically as "harmonizers," but that's actually a trademark name under Eventide's control. A pitch shifter actually takes the second signal and defuses it slightly in increments of cents (hundredths of a semitone). Mild pitch shift settings yield chorus-like effects; drastic ones come in the form of musical intervals, like 3rds, 4ths, and 5ths. Intelligent pitch shifters will alter an interval to fit a certain key or scale, so you can play in harmony with yourself (like the twin-guitar leads of classic southern rock bands).

Delay. With the advent of digital reverb, it's important to distinguish delay as a rather artificial effect compared to the more natural-sounding echo that reverb produces. Delay is a discrete, or separate, repeat of the original signal at a specified interval (in milliseconds) after the original. Delay yields a spacious sound when used with times higher than 100 milliseconds or so. Settings of about 125 and above produce "slapback," a popular rockabilly effect, and longer times (around 300 ms) yield a soaring, cavernous sound.

Also included on a delay unit are Feedback (how many times the effected signal is fed into the delay channel), Modulation (a filter sweep that adds a chorus-like sound), and, on a stereo delay, panning controls for a "ping-pong" effect. A delay goes at the very end of the chain, just before the reverb, unless it's substituting for a reverb, in which case it goes last.


When used conventionally, reverb and delay (which serves double-duty as a time-based effect, described in the previous section) act as ambient effects, and so are placed at the very end of the chain. (Some pedals, like the RV-3 in Fig. 4, combine delay and reverb.) The reasoning is that this is the most natural way we hear sound-in an environment which these effects are simulating. It doesn't make as much sense to add swirly chorus onto the tail of a long reverb as it does to add reverb to a chorused sound. If special effects are required, though—notably a rhythmic repeat in the delay or a gated reverb a la the Phil Collins snare sound—these units can be placed further up the chain.

Tip: If you're using reverb as a studio sideman, you must clear it with the recording engineer, in case he has his own plans for ambient treatment.

If you are recording yourself, try to add reverb at the midtown stage, as you may change your mind about the ambient treatment once all the instruments are in place in the mix. "Printing," or recording, with effects can't be undone once it's on tape.

When recording, guitarists like to hear reverb to get the right feel, and most mixers allow you to "monitor" effects without printing them, which means you hear them through the headphones or speakers, but they don't go to tape. If you have only one reverb unit but need to use two reverb programs simultaneously (e.g., small room on rhythm guitar, large hall on lead solo), you may have to print with effects when tracking.


There are other effects that may not fall neatly into one of the above categories, but we can at least place them in the chain. A phase shifter sounds a lot like a flanger, but is really more of an EQ-based effect than a time-based one. Nevertheless, it should go where flangers, choruses, and pitch shifters go—after signal conditioners and true EQ-based effects.

Octavers, or octave dividers (shown in Fig. 5), behave like doublers, except that the doubled signal is usually one or two (or both at once) octaves up or down.

An octave effect can be achieved with a pitch shifter, so put your octaver in the vicinity of other time-based effects. Exciters, such as the BBE Sonic Stomp, are EQ-based devices that are intended to sparkle up an entire sound, so put those at the end (but before the reverb to preserve the natural EQ roll-off effect programmed into a reverb's algorithm).



The guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with either nylon or steel strings. Some modern guitars are made of polycarbonate materials. Guitars are made and repaired by luthiers. There are two primary families of guitars: acoustic and electric.

Acoustic guitars (and similar instruments) with hollow bodies have been in use for over a thousand years. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar (nylon-string guitar), the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the vibration of the strings, which is amplified by the body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber. The classical guitar is often played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive fingerpicking technique.

Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, rely on an amplifier that can electronically manipulate tone. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but a solid body was found more suitable. Electric guitars have had a continuing profound influence on popular culture. Guitars are recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, bluegrass, country, flamenco, jazz, jota, mariachi, reggae, rock, soul, and many forms of pop.

The Electric guitar hasn't been around nearly as long as the Acoustic and Classical guitars. In fact, the Electric guitar was created just 70 years ago (the 1930s) by Adolph Rickenbacker. Since that time, the Electric guitar has greatly evolved to the where it is today. In this article, we'll go over the history of the Electric guitar.

The History
Guitars, or similar instruments, have been around for thousands of years. The Electric guitar was first manufactured in the 1930s by Rickenbacker. Original Electric guitars used tungsten pickups. Pickups basically convert the vibration of the strings into electrical current, which is then fed into the amplifier to produce the sound.

The very earliest Electric guitars featured smaller soundholes in the body. These guitars are known as semi-hollow body Electric guitars and still are somewhat popular today, mainly due to the fact that they are flexible guitars.
However, with the use of pickups, it was possible to create guitars without soundholes (like the Acoustic and Classical guitars have) that still had the ability to be heard, if plugged into amplifiers. These guitars are called solid body Electric guitars.

The Electric guitar's popularity began to increase during the Big Band era of the '30s and 40s. Due to the loudness of the brass sections in jazz orchestras, it was necessary to have guitars that could be heard above the sections. Electric guitars, with the ability to be plugged into amplifiers, filled this void.

The Electric guitar that is most prevalent today is the solid body Electric guitar. The solid body guitar was created by musician and inventor Les Paul in 1941. It is a guitar made of solid wood with no soundholes. The original solid body guitar created by Paul was very plain--it was a simple rectangular block of wood connected to a neck with six steel strings. Les Paul's original solid body guitar shape has, of course, changed from the original rectangular shape to the more rounded shape Les Paul guitars have today.

During the 1950s, Gibson introduced Les Paul's invention to the world. The Gibson Les Paul, as it was and still is called, quickly became a very popular Electric guitar. It has remained the most popular guitar for 50 years.

Around the same period of time, another inventor named Leo Fender came up with a solid body Electric guitar of his own. In the late 1940s, Fender introduced the Fender Broadcaster Electric guitar. The Broadcaster, which was renamed the Stratocaster, was officially introduced to the public in 1954. The Strat, as it is now known, was a very different guitar in comparison to the Les Paul. It had a different shape, different hardware and was significantly lighter. Fender's Stratocaster Electric guitar is the second most popular guitar in the world, second to only the Les Paul.

Over the years, other companies, such as Ibanez, Jackson, Paul Reed Smith, ESP and Yamaha have all produced solid body Electric guitars of their own. However, most Electric guitars still feature the familiar shape of a Les Paul or Strat guitar.


October 1, 2010

pedal board

Fig. 2: A metal pedalboard with wheels using a...Image via WikipediaGuitar pedal board:
A guitar pedalboard is a flat board or panel which serves as a container, patch bay and power supply for effects pedals for the electric guitar. Some pedalboards contain their own transformer and power cables, in order to power a number of different pedals. Pedalboards assist the player in managing multiple pedals. The entire pedalboard can be packed up and transported to the next location without the need for disassembly.

Pedalboards often have a cover which protects the effects pedals during transportation. There are many varieties of pedalboard cases, including homemade DIY pedalboard cases, store-bought pedalboard cases, and, for professional musicians, custom-made pedalboard cases. Hard shell pedalboard-cases have foam padding, reinforced corners, and locking latches which protect the pedals during transport; during onstage performance, with the lid removed, the bottom of the case is a pedalboard. Most pedalboards have a flat surface where pedals and their power supplies are attached using Velcro or other techniques, and they often have a removable lid or padding to protect the pedals when they are not being used. Some pedalboards have handles or wheels to facilitate transportation


Most effects pedals are powered by varying levels of DC voltage, depending on the manufacturer. Possible voltages include 9V, 12V, 15V, 18V, 24V, and 40V, though 9V is most common. Some effects pedals accept a range of voltages, producing different effects. Guitar players can experiment with varying voltages to generate different sounds.
A guitar amplifier (or guitar amp) is an electronic amplifier designed to make the signal of an electric or acoustic guitar louder so that it will produce sound through a loudspeaker. Guitar amplifiers also modify the instrument's tone by emphasizing or de-emphasizing certain frequencies and adding electronic effects.
Amplifiers consist of one or more circuit stages which have unique responsibilities in the modification of the input signal. The power amplifier or output stage produces a high current signal to drive a speaker to produce sound. One or more preamplifier stages precede the power amplifier stage. The preamplifier is a voltage amplifier that amplifies the guitar signal to a level that can drive the power stage. There may be one or more tone stages which affect the character of the guitar signal: before the preamp stage (as in the case of guitar pedals), in between the preamp and power stages (as in the cases of effects loop or many dedicated amplifier tone circuits), in between multiple stacked preamp stages, or in feedback loops from a post-preamp signal to an earlier pre-preamp signal (as in the case of presence modifier circuits). The tone stages may also have electronic effects such as equalization, compression, distortion, chorus, or reverb. Amplifiers may use vacuum tubes (in Britain they are called valves), or solid state (transistor) devices, or both.